UNESCO HIV and AIDS Education Clearinghouse forum

18-29 May 2009. Teachers and HIV & AIDS: reviewing achievements, identifying challenges. (Closed forum) => Pre- and in-service training => Topic started by: Forum Moderator on May 07, 2009, 12:06:10 pm



Title: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Forum Moderator on May 07, 2009, 12:06:10 pm
• How are HIV and AIDS addressed in pre-service teacher training in your country or the country/ies in which you work? What opportunities are there for continuous professional development on HIV and AIDS for teachers and what is the content, process and duration of the training? Are both pre- and in-service training opportunities offered and what is the coverage?

• Are teachers trained and supported to encourage participatory, child-centred and age-appropriate learning which helps learners to personalise the information, and address the risk and protective factors related to HIV? Are teachers equipped with a broad repertoire of teaching methodologies and instructional skills

• In your experience, are teacher training strategies for HIV prevention different in low versus high prevalence settings? In what way(s) and why?

• Which interventions produce demonstrable improvements in teacher effectiveness to teach about HIV and AIDS? Consider and comment on different approaches.

• There is considerable evidence that many teachers have difficulties addressing sex – the main mode of HIV transmission – when teaching about HIV. In your country or the country/ies in which you work, how does teacher training approach the building of teachers’ confidence to address these topics in the classroom setting? What other kinds of support may teachers need in order to deal effectively with this issue?


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Moses_OrweOnyango on May 18, 2009, 07:00:22 pm
In my country, Kenya, I think tutors at primary teacher training colleges are still to come to terms with HIV/AIDS issues. There is still silence and little teaching about HIV prevention education even though it is officially integrated in the curriculum. Most of the tutors have not been trained to teach about HIV/AIDS yet the ministry of education in partnership with CfBT do conduct training for tutors. These national training have not been systematic and those trained are either administrators who do not teach in classes and mostly wait for invitation from the ministry to conduct in-service workshops for primary school teachers. I feel most training colleges in Kenya are still to fully implement the revised PTTC syllabus which has integrated HIV/AIDS as cross cutting issue.


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Shelina Walli on May 19, 2009, 10:22:49 am
 

In my experience of conducting action research to integrate HIV/AIDS education in the preschool curriculum, it was evident that participatory action research was a means of practical teacher training.

One of the outcomes of the above research was; teachers took initiative to integrate scientific knowledge and life skill education with the aim to provide awareness on HIV/AIDS, effects of and prevention of the same.
I would therefore strongly recommend action research as a means of in-service teacher training for practicing teachers.


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Forum Moderator on May 19, 2009, 10:47:22 am
A contribution sent via e-mail from Cameroon.

To increase the likehood of success,interventions need to be culturally appropriate and locally relevant,reflecting the social context within which they are embedded .They should be designed with a clear idea of the targuet population and the types of behaviours to changed.In turn,recognized impediments in the social environment to behaviour change probably need to be specifically adressed.Behaviour-change interventions should include promotion of lower-risk behaviour ,assistance in development of risk-reduction skills,and promotion of changes in societal norms.It must be noted that in Africa ,there is an urgent need to design ways of targeting women and adolescents for prevention messages.
          Basic principles of successful of Teachers programs include the following:
           
          Learning about and adapting to localconditions,
          ensuring community participation,
          carefully targeting the audience,
          identifying effective strategies and messages,
          buildind local capacity,
          evaluation results,and
          using the results from evaluation.
         
          Numerous interventions are being implemented throughout Africa ,but most are still information-based health education campaigns.Many of the messages communicated are generic or vague and do not address specific risk behaviors .Innovative approaches are typically small scale and lack rigorous evaluation .furthermore,it is not easy to demonstrate the success of a particular intervention because it is difficult to define and measure such outcome variables as "better health status" and to determine whether the intervention in question was the reason for a desired change.Consequently ,the need for solid evaluation research is still urgent .
 
 
Jean Gaston Emene Mengue
26 years old
AASM's Secretary
Cameroon


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Mark_Omolade on May 19, 2009, 11:00:53 am
In Nigeria,NIEPA my office precisely developed modules on the training and in-service training for teachers with the epidemic.In most of the training modules developed for UNICEF and MDGs in NIEPA,it is included in the curriculum.So achievements is on the high side here.As at present more modules on HIV/AIDS are on the way.Mark


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: G_Dart on May 19, 2009, 12:30:36 pm


In my experience of conducting action research to integrate HIV/AIDS education in the preschool curriculum, it was evident that participatory action research was a means of practical teacher training.

I would therefore strongly recommend action research as a means of in-service teacher training for practicing teachers.

This sounds a very interesting approach and it would be good to hear more about it from Shelina.

In Botswana a lot of time, energy and resources have been directed at tackling HIV / AIDS but my experience as a teacher educator there was that there was a gap between all this information and workshopping and the final detailed work and effort needed to integrate that into the everyday teacher education material and experience of students (and teachers in schools).
A huge amount of funding was put into a TV programme called 'Talkback' which was designed to be interactive and allow a forum for teachers and pupils to speak openly but research that I conducted with my students seemed to indicate that its effects might have been quite limited. Again, what was missing was the detailed work needed at a school level to ensure that staff and students were allowed access to the programme and were given basic training on how to use the material effectively on a day to day and classroom  level. For instance in the college where I worked only one per cent of students said that they watched the programme regularly whilst at college. Reported rates of use at schools were higher but very variable.
Piloting of such large scale projects is surely necessary as is a robust evaluation system which should be built into the original project (as far as I know the smallscale research I did with my students was the only evaluative work made public though I might be out of date with that by now).
But the points that Jean Mengue makes in his posting;

 Learning about and adapting to localconditions,
          ensuring community participation,
          carefully targeting the audience,
          identifying effective strategies and messages,
          buildind local capacity,
          evaluation results and
          using the results from evaluation.

are extremely important.


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: YF_Liu on May 19, 2009, 12:33:26 pm
I’d like to take this opportunity to share some information from low-prevalence settings.

In China, with support from UNICEF and UNESCO, the Beijing Normal University led a pilot project to integrate HIV and AIDS education in pre-service teacher training institutes. Various models were developed and tested during 2004-2006 in different teacher training colleges selected across the country, namely:

•   As an 18-hour elective subject for graduate students enrolled in “4+2 Programme” (4 years undergraduate and 2 years graduate), School of Education, Beijing Normal University

•   As an 18-hour elective subject for undergraduate students enrolled in Biology Teacher Training programme, Department of Biology, Hainan Normal University

•   As a compulsory subject for students in Physical Education, 24 teaching hours,  Zhejiang Lishui Teachers’ Training College

•   An on-line course for teachers registered in continued education programmes, 10 credits, by Hangzhou Normal University [In-service training]

•   An 8-hour curriculum infused into other subjects, Capital Sports College

•   Integrated with Carrier Subjects, such as: 10-hours in Medical Supervision (Jilin University); 6 hours in Female Health (Beijing Normal University); 8 hours in Genetics (School of Education, Beijing Normal University); 10 hours in Health Education (School of Sports, Inner Mongolian Normal University)

•   HIV and AIDS as a stand-alone subject, 26 hours, for students of correspondence, Inner Mongolian Normal University

The Chinese Ministry of Education organized two national workshops in 2006 to introduce these models to all teachers’ training institutions.

However, such project-driven activities seems remaining small-scaled and ad hoc, neither scaled up nor institutionalized.


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: J_Sass on May 19, 2009, 02:14:44 pm
I note that no one has yet mention the role of trade unions in teacher education programmes.

In many countries teachers' unions are implementing HIV prevention programmes, developing training materials, organizing training programmes, and allocating membership fees to HIV prevention activities for their members.

How are teachers' unions involved in teacher education programmes on HIV & AIDS in your country? Do you think that this should be a core activity of the union? What about other aspects related to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support.

Looking forward to your perspectives, Justine 


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Might Abreh on May 19, 2009, 02:55:45 pm
The contributions to the pre-service and the in-service components in teacher training is so interesting yesterday I spent a lot of time discussing teachers role in the curbing the problem HIV. The reflections on yesterdays topics took me through the discussion of the university of Cape Coast role making impact at both Institutional level and beyond (under Child protection school environments).

The initial teacher training colleges (now known as the colleges of education) have a courses in HIV AIDS education that is supposed to taken by students as part of the requirements for graduation. The students are tested to competencies by means of examination - assessment conducted by the Institute of Education. Teacher educators role in realizing the objects of these courses are crucial. Hence, concurrently workshops sponsored by the Institute of Education and Teacher Education Division of the Ghana Education Service are conducted to better resource the teacher educators to improve their level of proficiency and current research findings on the subject matter.

Special teacher educators were selected all over the country and trained in HIV AIDS educations (all such teachers). The Holy Child College of Education, in Takoradi as result has HIV AIDS Education Lab. students have first hand understanding on the use of contraceptives and other lessons.


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Forum Moderator on May 19, 2009, 03:11:38 pm
Dear team,

Many thanks indeed for initiating this forum. However I am experiencing some network problems and hence I would like to share my contribution through this PPT. I hope will be of interest to the rest.

The MEMA KWA VIJANA (MKV) means good things for young people was a four year intervention that was implemented jointly by AMREF, NIMR (Tanzania), Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, and London school of Tropical Medicine with the focus of promoting know to the prevention of HIV and AIDS in schools. The programme involved multsectoral departments at district level to ensure total commitment of government and those lessons leant are widely shared within the region and country at large.
Departments included Education, Health, Planning and Community developments. In this respect, teachers and health service provides were the primary beneficences of the programme. In the document, you will notice to what extent the programme has been useful in providing some policy influence among teachers and the government at different levels to ensure that teachers are part and parcel in the fight against HIV and AIDS so that youth (primary school children0 are aware on the means of controlling the killer disease.

As a result of this, many teachers in various schools of Mwanza region has now formed some community clubs to support themselves in continuing with education and prevention.

I hope this helps to contribute to the forum.

Best wishes,

Koronel
Programme manager


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: D_Sanglan on May 20, 2009, 11:18:27 am
Dear all,
On the question of teacher union involvement, 80 unions in 49 countries are participating in the EI EFAIDS Programme through which they work on education for HIV and AIDS Prevention. Unions implementing the EFAIDS Programme are supported in their activities by Education International, in partnership with the World Health Organisation and Education Development Center.  Through participating in training under the EFAIDS Programme, teachers acquire the skills to promote HIV prevention among their colleagues and students. Spurred by their work some unions are reaching out to local communities and taking the lead on HIV and AIDS.  In the EFAIDS Programme unions go beyond training on HIV, and work also to research, advocate and campaign for improvements on a whole range of AIDS-related themes. Working with their context, teacher unions are learning the best ways to respond to and prevent AIDS- related discrimination. Teacher unions are proving vital to supporting Teachers Living with HIV, partnering up with networks of such teachers or establishing dedicated networks within the union as appropriate. Teacher unions are lobbying their governments to include HIV and AIDS education in pre-service teacher training and school curricula; and are eager to be involved in processes to achieve that. Many unions are seeking ways to fully integrate their EFAIDS activities into their general union work. Through such interlinked strategies teacher unions can play an important role in minimising the adverse affects of HIV and AIDS on teachers and consequently minimise the detrimental impact of HIV and AIDS on the wider education sector. 
Below see some snapshots of the work undertaken by the unions in the last year:

In Burkina Faso, four teacher unions work together to build the capacity of their members to address the HIV and AIDS in schools. Recently unions focused on informing their members on the importance of VCT. They also conducted a study on the impact of HIV on teachers which led to the conclusion that HIV prevalence among teachers was higher than the national average. A focus on training enabled the unions to train some 2,200 teachers in 750 schools during 2008. Therefore to date the Burkinabe unions have achieved an impressive outreach, training 600 trainers and 7,000 teachers in almost 3,000 schools.

In Côte d’Ivoire, the IE-SCI (Education International – Côte d’Ivoire Section) groups four different teacher unions. Together, in 2008, they have achieved success in strengthening capacities of Executive Board members of the four unions, trainers and teachers (primary and secondary levels), including those studying in teacher training colleges all districts across Côte d’Ivoire. Almost 600 teachers were trained on HIV/AIDS education, EFA and violence in school.
Using the cascade model, teachers have attended training workshops seeking to affect behavioural change (18,000 teachers have been trained in government controlled territory since the beginning of the programme in 2006).

Dominican union, the Dominican Association of Teachers (ADP), works with other teacher unions FAPROUASD and ANPROTED on the programme. Training is at the core of their activities and since the beginning of the EFAIDS programme, more than 21,000 students have now received HIV prevention education in the classroom from trained teachers. Over the last year, 480 new teachers were trained on delivering HIV prevention education.

The Ghanaian National Association of Teachers (GNAT) and the Teachers & Educational Workers’ Union (TEWU) work together on the EFAIDS programme. A recent research survey entitled, “Awareness and Use of HIV/AIDS Prevention Methods among Teachers and Educational Workers in Ghana”, was carried out resulting in recommendations to open more counselling centres, promote VCT among members, involve members in skill-building programmes, and carry out more programmes targeting young people. The research survey was also instrumental in the development of policy. The Workplace Policy on HIV and AIDS was reviewed and extended to detail how the unions can prevent or mitigate the impact of HIV and AIDS on members.
The Namibia National Teachers' Union (NANTU) played an active role in 2008 in the consultation and drafting process of the ‘HIV and AIDS Workplace Wellness Policy for the Education Sector’. In addition NANTU worked with the Legal Assistance Centre to produce a dedicated Workplace Union Policy which was launched in June last year. Teachers were subsequently trained in the practical use of the Workplace Policy. Training during 2008 also focused on gender and GIPA, and fostering effective presentation skills.


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: J_Pessi on May 20, 2009, 12:26:08 pm
Trade unions, from the education sector or any other, have a crucial role to play in mobilizing their membership, raising awareness to the issue and developing policies to support workers, especially those living with HIV.

The fact that many governments have not adequately responded to the epidemic and have overlooked its impact, has led unions to take action and to invest scarce resources, both human and financial, to addressing this issue. The problem is that in some countries, there are reports that the government has used as an excuse for not training teachers the fact that the union has a programme.  If the union is taking care of that, why should we?, says the Minister of Education. Also, while the union is busy training teachers on HIV, the government is implementing another education reform.

The core activity of the union should be to defend the interest of its members and enhance education in a sustainable way. Union-led  HIV and AIDS education training programmes are of extreme importance, but  the long term solution is for the governments to assume their responsibility and to finance programmes and provide teachers with support to do our job well, as well as a decent salary in accordance to the expectations society has from our work.


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Forum Moderator on May 20, 2009, 02:54:50 pm
A contribution sent via email from Francelino Da Silva Correia, President of TLETA (The Timor Leste Exact Teacher Association):

1.   Before this forum in my country for pre- service some time Organized by Department of Health jointly with International Agency in my country, but General training for young, for people women, man, but not for teacher
-   And now after this forum I hope you (UNAIDS-HIV) to support us (my Association) to organized teacher training for HIV and AIDS in my country. If possible.
-   Pre- service: workshop, show photo, keys indicator-indicator about epidemics of HIV and AIDS etc this is promotion from the Department of Health and International Agencies.
-   The opportunities in my country are we must create the center of prevention of HIV and AIDS, Center of training for trainers for teacher specifics for HIV and AIDS.
-   The content will be in high is to stopping, to chain, to prevent, to safe of HIV and AIDS, the environmental schools to safety the students and teacher in community relation towards HIV and AIDS.
-   Training duration 3 years late and 10 years maximum,  in this position have cover all students and teacher in my country, so my country is very small  have only 900.000 rate population.
-   If the both pre and in service training offered, the item for coverage HIV and AIDS is  Brochure, TVTL, Radio  FM  Traveling clinic and also person of teacher for each family, because all villages in my country have teacher there and they do not know about transmission of HIV and AIDS.
2.   Yes if the teacher trained, they will have had the high encourage participatory.
-   Child center and age appropriate ….. yes and interesting in my country recently now not yet, but if possible and the UNAIDS-HIV to support, my be I and our friend have high Confidence and our friends as a teacher in my country will provide and implement that issue.
3.   In my experiences yes and different, why I say different, low  and high prevalence.
-   we use the word low its meaning still have a little no empty like 1, 2, or 3 or item reduce only. And we use the word of high prevalence it meaning Zero or some , actually, normal, depend the situation and cultural every country origin to implement.
4.   In my country The Department of health already do that, but not yet to the teacher exact (Natural science or social science) including in intervention produce demonstrable………… to HIV and AIDS,  but to teach only based on the theory of Biology about topics at Virus and sub topics HIV and AIDS. Teach By teachers.
-   we have different approach  there are : take moral religious, frighten the students or people only about HIV and AIDS, show brochure, photo etc.
5.   Yes in my country every teacher have difficulties to addressing Sex- about the main mode transmission, when teaching about HIV and AIDS no equipment, laboratories etc.
-   The teacher teaching according their capacity building of the theory only about HIV and AIDS topics, some times they use the pictures of HIV and AIDS show to the student in classroom.
-   I say that the kinds will be support to the teacher (Natural Science and Social Science) to teach the students. There are :
-   Microscopic, provide the slide of teaching, material, literature of teaching.
-   Equipments additional for Biology or HIV and AIDS Material teaching.
-   Library of HIV and AIDS, if the keys above have done supported, I think is effectively the teachers will be teaching use Methodologies and Instructional for Skills.     


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Richard Mabala on May 20, 2009, 03:24:43 pm
one issue that I hardly see mentioned at all here is 'life skills'.  My experience as a teacher and facilitator is that, especially by the time they get to teachers' colleges, young people are bored stiff with HIV education because it usually goes on telling them what they already know.  Except maybe for biology teachers, they are not in any way prepared to give education, only messages.  Nor are they trained to develop the life skills required in their pupils/students to put any worthwhile knowledge into practice. 

I think all teacher trainees should first be trained in life skills for their own benefit and related to their own lives.  This will also enable them to teach life skills at schools, although in many places the participatory methodologies required are a problem to many.  That is why I liked what I saw in Zimbabwe where, apart from all trainees being taught life skills, they had another category of trainee peer educators who were brilliant!  If HIV education ... and life skills, not just connected to HIV, is to work, we should develop more on a voluntary basis, asking for, training and giving incentives to teachers for these.  I am sure we will get enough teachers for this and we will then get away from the problem of requiring teachers to teach the subject when their religion, or their temperament is against such teaching, and such methodologies.  That is why it is reported in so many countries that teachers just leave the book on the table rather than teach the subject.


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Forum Moderator on May 20, 2009, 03:52:43 pm
Contribution received via email from Oulaye Lydet from Côte d'Ivoire:

To suggest that the methods of selection of teachers in Civic and Moral Education has an incidence on their motivation to assure their information tasks is not insignificant. There is a relationship between the way in which teachers are chosen and their motivation to teacher the subject. However, before detailing this relationship, it is useful to evoke the relationship between selection and training.

Often teaching Civic and Moral Education is not a choice. The teachers are generally chosen amongst those who have not reached the quota of hours required for the subject in which they received their initial training. Some teachers are literally obliged to give classes in Civic and Moral Education to fulfill their hours, and to “justify” as it were the relationship between remuneration and hourly rate. These problems are directly linked to the absence of training and people to teach Civic and Moral Education. As there are no teachers specially trained in Civic and Moral Education, the Ministry allows head teachers to draw from their teaching staff those who may be available. If this solution for teaching Civic and Moral Education is an answer to the lack of staff, it also has the disadvantage of reducing the motivation of teachers for Civic and Moral Education. From one year to another, teachers do not necessarily continue with teaching Civic and Moral Education if they have enough teaching hours for their own subject. Whereas some more “scrupulous” teachers of Civic and Moral Education buy documents/manuals to assist them, others consider that this is an additional expense [this is, it seems to me, similar to the problems of remuneration that the moderator evokes in Ghana and Nigeria]. Some talk of an additional workload, as they must not only inform themselves, but also prepare lessons in Civic and Moral Education as well as their own subject.

It would seem that to minimize these limits to teaching Civic and Moral Education, it is important to create an option for teacher Civic and Moral Education within initial teacher training. This would mean that there would be teachers specifically trained to undertake these classes and only these classes. It also seems of great importance to include within initial teacher training in Civic and Moral Education a module on “teacher ethics”. Lack of teacher training in Civic and Moral Education also raises the question of teacher ethics and the teachers’ relations with pupils. These are often abused by teachers. The phenomenon of “sexually transmitted grades” amongst others is common practice within teacher/pupil relations and the power relations between teachers and pupils often run in favour of the former to the detriment of the latter. It is possible as some parents fear that evoking questions of sexuality within the classroom creates sexual contacts between teachers and pupils. In this case, it may be appropriate to delegate the transmission of knowledge related to sexuality to more “neutral” persons.

Moreover, the extension of a module on teacher ethics to all subjects within teacher training would be judicious as sexual abuse of pupils generally happens within the school environment. Not only amongst teachers of Civic and Moral Education. Day to day relations between male teachers and female pupils are susceptible to creating affinities which may become amorous.

I would also like to evoke the issue of behaviour change and sexuality. It seems to me that behaviour change in the area of sexuality can not only be based on promoting information on STDs and HIV, as ignorance is not the only aspect to take into account when it comes to sexual behavior. It is clear, as certain authors within the field of social sciences suggest, that economic, cultural, relational, should also be taken into account.

For my part, I have personally witnessed that events within the life of pupils can not only distress them but can also lead to a change in sexual behavior. It is noticeable that events produce new “organizations” within an individual’s life and activate one or other of the different economical, cultural, relational factors, or other factors. This factor then becomes the element from which the behavior of an individual is guided, including those related to sexuality. The death of a parent may bring out the importance of religious beliefs and lead to the end of a relationship to conform to these beliefs. An encounter may highlight the importance of a single relationship and bring about the change from multiple partners to a single sexual partner. The rape of a young girl can be so traumatic that it ends any perspective of relationships.

So, from my perspective, it is fundamental to measure an individual’s sexual behavior change in relation to the events in his/her life and to link the changes in sexual behavior according to each event in that person’s life.


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: David Ross on May 20, 2009, 04:23:43 pm
I just wanted to add to what my colleague Koronel Kema of AMREF posted about the MEMA kwa Vijana Project in Tanzania. This project has a website www.memakwavijana.org where you can get the English language versions of the materials that were used for training teachers in how they could teach sessions in sexual and reproductive health, including detailed lesson plans, a teachers' resource book, etc. There are also a large number of other materials: publications, policy briefs, technical briefs, reports, a detailed description of the project and the interventions, etc. Also the results of the very rigorous evaluation (within a cluster randomised trial) of the impact of the interventions on HIV, other sexually transmitted infections, pregnancy, reported behaviours, atttitudes, and knowledge, which has been conducted since 1998, with over 8 years of follow-up. The most recent follow-up survey within the trial included over 14,000 young people and was completed in 2008. There are also links to an article about the results of detailed process evaluation, etc. We hope this will be useful to others working in the field.

David Ross, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: J_Mmbando on May 20, 2009, 04:45:05 pm
In my experiance here n Tanzania HIV/AIDS teachning in school is very rear to see teachers are responsible for teaching these although the government officily as the curriculum at school, and also there is no traingnig for teachers like others sector to keep the updated with Virus and Drugs so teachers known nothing in the trining, but you will find most of the NGO people have training always around without even introducing to teachers these is one of the challenges we face here, that why you will see these NGO people go to school for teaching


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: David Ross on May 20, 2009, 04:59:23 pm
Thanks for the comment about teachers in Tanzanian primary schools. I agree that in some programmes NGOs may have done sexual health and HIV prevention teaching in schools without active involvement of the teachers themselves. However, the MEMA kwa Vijana in-school interventions are all delivered by government (Ministry of Education and Vocational Training) primary school teachers within the normal school classes. And these are supervised by the Ward Education Cordinators and, in turn, by the District Inspectors of Schools. Also, the teachers are trained by a team of District Inspectors and Academic Officers.

David Ross, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine of the MEMA kwa Vijana Project Team


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Mark_Omolade on May 20, 2009, 05:29:54 pm
Dear Participants, l wish to let you understand the great idea in networking. As at the time l'm sending this contribution l have serious network  with many universities in Nigeria  on the issue of setting up counselling units on pre and in service training of teachers on HIV/AIDS to integrate it into their curriculum.


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: M_Juma on May 20, 2009, 06:18:57 pm
The need for conducting a researc on in service training on the prevention for HIV transimission should be done to Teachers in Tanzania.


Mgesi Juma
from AFRICAN uNION People' Empowerment Foundation (AUPEF)


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Forum Moderator on May 22, 2009, 10:22:37 am
Contribution received via email from Agnes Kabanda Kyambadde:

The Uganda  National Union for teachers (UNATU) has been engaged in various initiatives to combat HIV/AIDs amongst the Ugandan teachers.  Last year UNATU supported and distributed the Ministry of Education’s Workplace Policy on HIV and AIDS in about a quarter of schools in Uganda.

The Ministry of Education in Uganda has developed an education work place policy on HIV/AIDS.  Challenges were experienced at the dissemination level.  UNATU printed and distributed the policy to three quarters of schools across Uganda. But in many cases the policy ends up on the principal’s shelf. So even if teachers are aware that it exists, they remain no wiser to the content.

UNATU’s has gone ahead to make a popular version of the policy that can appear on the board for all teachers to access. This is their plan for 2009.  I believe all teachers in the developing world need a version of this policy.

I happened to be working with the Ministry of Education as partners at the time this policy was developed in 2003. I have its version and am ready to share it with all other partners who could also use it in their country education sector HIV/AIDs programs

HIV/AIDS remains a big problem in Uganda despite the so many programs to address it. We still need to share with all the other nations on how they are over coming it.   Teachers in Uganda have also formed an Anti Aids Action Groups to address the problems faced by teachers living with HIV/AIDS. This is headed by Julius Kisakye a Teacher living with HIV/AIDS.  Their basic problem is taking off as an NGO.


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Forum Moderator on May 22, 2009, 10:25:38 am
A contribution received from CIL SIDA

Au Togo, pour le moment, certains professeurs de la SVT se basent sur des documents ayant des informations sur le VIH/Sida pour faire leur enseignement. Mais aujourd'hui, l'ATBEF est entrain d'initier un projet d'éducation sexuelle sur les bancs d'écoles. Notre organisation a en cette année académique 2008-2009 initié un projet pilote dans un établissement scolaire secondaire. Le projet consiste à faire un débat sur la sexualité liée au VIH/Sida aux heures libres dans les classes de 6è et 5è. L'année académique prochaine, ce projet va être réalisé dans d'autres établissements secondaires.
 
In Togo, for the time, some SVT teachers were based on documents with information on HIV / AIDS to their teaching. But now the ATBEF is in the process of initiating a project of sex education to school. Our organization has in the academic year 2008-2009 initiated a pilot project in a secondary school. The project consists of a debate about sex-related HIV / AIDS to free time in grades 5th and 6th. The next academic year, this project will be done in other schools.


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Forum Moderator on May 22, 2009, 10:26:32 am
Contribution received via email from Ethiopia:

There are many acievements: good leadership and political commitment, agressive mainstreaming into the curriculum and co-curricular activities, community engagements, sensitization and conferences(though not adequate and strategically planned and implemented in some institutions due to capacity and resource constraints), interest of the customers/students/parents on the issue, relative changes in attitudes,...these are acheivements. The major challenges: poverty, lack of good governance, still silences and not openness due to cultural and social pressures--about sex, sexuality, HIV..for your surprise talking about sex, sexual relationship , HIV prevention through condom..still associated with loose behavior.....to mitigate these challenges..efforts of mainstreaming not only in shools or curricula but into family institutions, religious instituions..good but not really efficient/effective...


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Forum Moderator on May 22, 2009, 10:27:51 am
Received via e-mail from Zambia

The biggest problem in schools is that many pupils especially in the rural areas lack the basic necassities. Therefore, apart from using the conventional methods of teaching AIDS and HIV, there is need to devise methods that will allow teachers to access pupils through their parents and guidance. A few Parent Teachers Associations, in Zambia, have used their forum to educate parents so that the parents can educate their children. There is prejudice in AIDS and HIV messages and some pupils are generally fatigued and they ignore such messages for this reason.   

Patson Phiri
Press Association of Zambia


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Forum Moderator on May 22, 2009, 10:30:40 am
DAMEGO-COTONFRANC Jean Pierre Hope of the Association for Peace in Central Africa. CAR,

I think I am of the opinion to the statement by Mr David Ross, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. And let me point out that this method I would say a little work at CAR  we consider the initiative to strengthen training of sexual and reproductive health. In Bangui, we worked in collaboration with NGO with similar objectives as ours and we have put in place in 12 regions of the CAR starting with former teachers, students and pupils on teachers, they are given training of trainers that they too can finally return what they have learned to students, that's the first goal.

The second objective is to train teachers parents, ie positions in the conflict or there are no lessons on the trains so that they can transmit their élèves.A Currently, we are go seeking to develop a structure called the Center for recruitment of persons living with HIV / AIDS and is in good voice, so to find the best strategy, it is sufficient to strengthen the frameworks above and that this will enable us to eradicate this problem to find as what we must do to ensure that these same people can respect and take care to avoid even a possible epidemic.

Jean Pierre DAMEGO-COTONFRANC of Central African Republic


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Arrey Emmanuel Enow on May 22, 2009, 10:40:08 am
In my rural communities in Cameroon, the word sex is still considered a taboo. not to talk of a teacher mentioning it to the pupils in class. With my experience in my primary school in which i graduated, when i called the word sex when i was giving the children lesson on HIV/AIDS, more than half of the class bend their heads down. This shows that they are not use to the word. I asked the teacher after the lesson why it happened and he told my this word is not often used and when you use it, you will be stigmatised as being "raw".
This i think is a problem that originates from the teachers training leading to inappropriate approach to the pupils.
One other thing that i noticed was that most of these teachers in the rural areas are parent teachers. These teachers had no formal training as teachers.
I think teachers should be well trained in sex education and sent more especially in the rural areas of Cameroon.


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Arrey Emmanuel Enow on May 22, 2009, 10:46:31 am
The Issue of Pre-and in-service training for HIV/AIDS should be focus more on the rural areas than the urban areas and UNESCO should take a leading hand in doing this.
In most war torn countries and countries who had suffered from crises for a long time, more emphasis is always focus in the urban areas and leaving the most vulnerable in the rural areas more Open to HIV/AIDS and the conseguencies.


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Zulaikatu Usman Momodu on May 25, 2009, 05:21:10 pm
• How are HIV and AIDS addressed in pre-service teacher training in your country or the country/ies in which you work? What opportunities are there for continuous professional development on HIV and AIDS for teachers and what is the content, process and duration of the training? Are both pre- and in-service training opportunities offered and what is the coverage?
In my country Nigeria, the Pre-service stand alone curriculum is in place.The Family Life and Emerging Health Issues curriculum  was developed by the National Commission for Colleges of Education which is a requlatory body for teacher education in collaboration with Federal Ministry of Education and Action Health Incorporated developed. The curriculum content include HIV&AIDS, Life skills, Faciltation techniques and other health issues and is offered for one year as a compulsory course in all teacher training Institutions. HIV&AIDS issues are also integrated in relevant subject areas in Colleges of Education i.e our teacher training colleges.
Some Universities in Nigeria also offer Diploma courses in HIV&AIDS. Its a two year course
 
While the In-service training is implemented nation wide in line with the National Guideline for the Implementation of Family Life HIV&AIDS Education Curriculum. FLHE is an age appropreriat, spirally arranged and gender sensive HIV&AIDS curriculum for primary and secondary schools The in-service training is a seven day training on curriculum content, faciltation techniques and two or three days practicum (practicalising what has been taught). The classroom delivery of the FLHE curriculum is according to the socio-cultural peculiarities of where is is being taught

• Are teachers trained and supported to encourage participatory, child-centred and age-appropriate learning which helps learners to personalise the information, and address the risk and protective factors related to HIV? Are teachers equipped with a broad repertoire of teaching methodologies and instructional skills
Yes they. Even if they were not initiallty trained to do that the in-service training focus on that and teaching methodologies relevant to life skills

• In your experience, are teacher training strategies for HIV prevention different in low versus high prevalence settings? In what way(s) and why?
In NIgeria we make use of the same delivery process in both high and low prvelence setting. However,the only difference is that areas with high prevelence started classroom delivery of the curriculum earlier than those with low prevelence

• Which interventions produce demonstrable improvements in teacher effectiveness to teach about HIV and AIDS? Consider and comment on different approaches.

• There is considerable evidence that many teachers have difficulties addressing sex – the main mode of HIV transmission – when teaching about HIV. In your country or the country/ies in which you work, how does teacher training approach the building of teachers’ confidence to address these topics in the classroom setting? What other kinds of support may teachers need in order to deal effectively with this issue?
This is also a challenge to effective teaching of the FLHE curricul, Hence the curriculum is structured in such a way that the core sex issues are taught in the senoir secondary level. The training on FLHE curricum implementation has relevent topic that address the issue raised above. So that at the end of the training teachers gain confidence in teaching the traditional hard to discuss topics 


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Mark_Omolade on May 25, 2009, 11:31:40 pm
I think pre- and in-service training for HIV/AIDS teachers needs to be given more attention at the rural community in every country,so UNESCO should begin campaign on this idea.


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Forum Moderator on May 27, 2009, 10:10:59 am
The following message comes from Eric Allemano, Consultant to Catholic Relief Services/Haiti and is addressed mainly to David Ross, Arrey Emmanuel Enow and Jean-Pierre Damego-Cotonfranc


I have found many of the forum exchanges to be interesting and instructive in terms of raising issues that must be dealt with in designing curriculum and teacher training on HIV/AIDS and life skills. I am beginning an assignment for an NGO that will help the Ministry of Education of Haiti to design a curriculum on these subjects for both primary and secondary schools. I have been asked to find examples of "good practices" to submit to the Hatian team to study and adapt to the local school environment. For that reason, I am looking for French-language curricula in HIV/AIDS and life skills which include both student and teacher materials. I have reviewed the Mema Kwa Vijana materials from Tanzania and they look good. I am glad to hear that they have been evaluated and are shown to be effective. The problem (for Haiti) is that they are in Kiswahili and English. Is there anything similar available in French? I would like to be able to discuss issues with those who have designed and implemented curricula in their countries in order to share these experiences with the Hatian counterparts. I look forward to hearing from you.
Many thanks,
Eric Allemano




Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Forum Moderator on May 27, 2009, 10:30:02 am
Contribution from CIL SIDA (Togo) in response to the question who is best suited to teach HIV education in schools.

HIV education in schools should be taught by teachers or somebody from an organisation trained for this. As I mentioned previously, our organisation CILSIDA started this in a school in Togo using one our members who had been well trained and received the necessary skills for this. Often when health professionals intervene for teaching HIV education the message is not communicated well.


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Francelino da Silva Correia on May 28, 2009, 03:03:10 am
In my Idea:
The Education developments partners must taking high interest, in progress the strategic and Method to solving the problem on issues related to HIV amd AIDS; Start from : Planning, Implementing,  Controling together UN AIDS till to Rvaluations of Programme in rural /place . must give more full attention, seriously to implement in National Olanning of Programme for every Country.

Therea are : To support really Practising, Theory, Financial aid and also Including at establesh the Curiculum the operational of Chain and Prevantions of HIV and AIDS towards the pupils ,students, young, adults etc.


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Forum Moderator on May 28, 2009, 09:54:23 am
Response to questions for Tuesday, 27th May, 2009
 
Role of Joint UN Teams on HIV and AIDS
 
In Nigeria, several training programmes on HIV and AIDs have been organised for teachers at the Federal, State and Local Government levels by the joint team of UN. Also, the Committees on HIV and AIDs at the three tiers of government have been supported by Joint UN Teams in respect of  teachers training in the Country.
 
On Education Development Partners and HIV and AIDS Issues
 
Also in Nigeria, educational development partners have been severally involved in issues relating to HIV and AIDS programmes. For instance, The HIV and AIDS Co-ordinating Units of the Federal and State Ministries of Education and their parastatals have the primary responsibility for the implementation of this policy. The management of HIV and AIDS in the sector is a complex issue requiring multi-sectoral interventions. Interagency collaboration and the forging of partnerships are paramount to the prograss and success of interventions.
 
In the process of implementing the policies on HIV and AIDS in Nigeria, development partners are involved. You may wish to know that membership of the highest committee on HIV and AIDS in Nigeria ( HIV and AIDS National Policy Technical Working Committee) included development partners as ENHANSE, USAID,UNESCO, ActionAid, SMARTWork and UNICEF apart from other bodies in Nigeria. The team is responsible for
(i) developing sector policy document and its subsequent review on a regular basis,
(ii) providing information and other requisites for the smooth implementation of the policies on HIV and AIDS'
(iii) planning, implementing and overall monitoring of the policies and their implementation
(iv) advocating and information sharing on the policy, and
(v) producing and disseminating of the policy.
 
This is to show that development partners are usually involved in issues on HIV and AIDS in Nigeria.
 
Dr. T. L. Adepoju
Obafemi Awolowo University,


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Arrey Emmanuel Enow on May 28, 2009, 02:06:29 pm
Have management tools been adapted in order to monitor teacher absences, replacements, transfers and training?
In Cameroon, this had been adapted and a teacher absence, transfer, training and replacement are easily noticed. What is bad in it is that in the case where a teacher is transfered, some refuse to go especially in rural areas. some may even take half a year or the whole year before they go to their new school.
- A teacher can be absent for a long time if an only if he/she negociate well with the head teacher.
- some teachers even travel abroad but their salaries are still passing.
- Teachers go on training but when they leave, they are not replaced most at times, another teacher will take his/her subjects and add to his/hers.
In all these, the puplis suffer.


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Francelino da Silva Correia on May 29, 2009, 02:22:06 am
I want to give my idea about the question from Mr Eman, about Recruiting Physcologist, why I say that in my Opinion say we must involved the Physcologic in training or investigation of HIV and AIDS because the  physcologist already have many experiences in the theory, practic how to meet every body who have problems, the physcologist have skills behavior at interview of the man of women who trasmited in HIV and AIDS, have a theory mentals etc.
So that the physcologist must involved together with the Medical or Biology departemen to addresing the HIV AIDS.
Thank MR. Eman


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Francelino da Silva Correia on May 29, 2009, 02:52:22 am
According my Idea yes HIV and AIDS will be good to Taught a Standlone subject in every schools and
This subject must alocated specific time to the teacher who spend she/he the time to teach.

Using the interconected to monitor in order to avoid medical-related teacher absences.
thanks


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Forum Moderator on May 29, 2009, 11:09:38 am
Question 1: HIV and AIDS as Standalone Subject

The idea of teaching HIV and AIDS as standalone subject in schools is the best and ideal approach but the problem of experts in the area may be a setback considering the sensitive nature of the pandemic. Apart from this, unless the curriculum for the subject is design to guide the teachers who are to teach the subject it may be difficult. Again, if the subject is to be taught alone, it should be made compulsory for students in schools. The problem again is that of other pandemics, should we also teach them as standalone subjects? The idea of integrating HIV and AIDS into the curriculum of other subjects is not also bad.

Dr. T. L. Adepoju
Obafemi Awolowo University,
Nigeria


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Forum Moderator on May 29, 2009, 02:42:02 pm
A contribution received via email from Africa Makakane:

Yes,  HIV and AIDS  should be  a standalone subject in schools so that it can  receive the appropriate allocation of time, resources and personnel.

This pandemic is a serious menace to the world at large and up till today it is uncurable.Hence our powerful weapons in this regard i should believe  are  AWARENESS  and  Behavioural Change.In order to attain our goals we should dedicate more time,specialist people and appropriate funding for HIV  and AIDS Education.Ofcourse,this menace is all humankind menace hence everybody's business.But we need to give it an attention it deserves in the academic arena.In our schools it is taught as  component of various subjects such as  Life Skills.Some people are less interested in issues related to HIV and AIDS  hence do not treat it as a burning issue.Hence a need to let it be handled  by teachers who trained to handle, it should be accorded enough time, special resources required for teaching it.


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Forum Moderator on June 02, 2009, 10:47:21 am
Final contribution from Swaziland

Coverage and content of pre- and in- service training for teachers

• How are HIV and AIDS addressed in pre-service teacher training in your country or the countries in which you work? What opportunities are there for continuous professional development on HIV and AIDS for teachers and what is the content, process and duration of the training? Are both pre- and in-service training opportunities offered and what is the coverage?

Pre-service teacher training still has a huge challenge in the provision of HIV and AIDS teaching skills and HIV and AIDS issues are not incorporated into the teacher training curriculum. If at all the student teachers get information, it is adhoc. They usually invite people or speakers to conduct session on health issues including HIV once a year during orientation time.

• Are teachers trained and supported to encourage participatory, child-centred and age-appropriate learning which helps learners to personalize the information, and address the risk and protective factors related to HIV? Are teachers equipped with a broad repertoire of teaching methodologies and instructional skills?

The syllabus that is currently being taught in schools encourages participatory, child centred and age-appropriate learning but this is not necessarily related to HIV and AIDS issues. The in-service department of the University of Swaziland in collaboration with the Ministry of Education and Training equips teachers with a broader repertoire of teaching methodologies and instructional skills.

• In your experience, are teacher training strategies for HIV prevention different in low versus high prevalence settings? In what way(s) and why?

Swaziland being a relatively small country does not have vast differences in the prevalence settings so the teaching strategies for HIV prevention are not different.

• Which interventions produce demonstrable improvements in teacher effectiveness to teach about HIV and AIDS? Consider and comment on different approaches.

A participatory life skills education programme, including story telling, outside the formal classroom setup. This can happen when there is at least one full time guidance teacher in each school.

• There is considerable evidence that many teachers have difficulties addressing sex – the main mode of HIV transmission – when teaching about HIV. In your country or the country/ies in which you work, how does teacher training approach the building of teachers’ confidence to address these topics in the classroom setting? What other kinds of support may teachers need in order to deal effectively with this issue?

This is facilitated by inservice training by NGO’s such as SHAPE, FLAS and the department of guidance and counseling in the Ministry of Education and Training (MoET).


Title: Re: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion
Post by: Forum Moderator on June 02, 2009, 11:04:11 am
Received via email from Dr. Shabnam Ahmed, Pakistan

It was a rewarding experience of participating in this debate. Thank you for sending regular briefings about the comments made by the participants.it enhanced my own knowledge about the present issues and challenges regarding HIV/AIDS particularly in developing world.

I would like to contribute in the discussion. The biggest challenge in Pakistan regarding HIV/AIDS education particularly in schools and colleges is the cultural taboo to talk about such issues. Myself being a teacher educator at Aga Khan University, find it extremely difficult to even discuss the common mode of HIV infection at teachers training programmes. Teachers are not ready to discuss such issues in class rooms. There are more than 80,000 reported cases of HIV/AIDS in Pakistan. we do not know the exact figure yet as it remains unreported. The only HIV/AIDS dissemination is through vague messages on media(radio,T.V,newspaper) which is inaccessible to a large population in rural areas belonging to low socio economic background.



Dr. Shabnam Ahmed
Senior Instructor
Aga Khan University
Institute for Educational Development