UNESCO HIV and AIDS Education Clearinghouse forum UNESCO HIV and AIDS Education Clearinghouse forum
E-forum on Treatment, Care and Support for HIV and AIDS in Higher Education Institutions. This forum is held at the request of the United Nations Inter-Agency Task Team on Education Working Group on Higher Education (WGHE). It aims to share experiences and good practices on the management of HIV and AIDS within higher education institutions, particularly universities as centres of treatment, care and support.

The forum will be open from 4 to 15 October 2010.

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Author Topic: Pre- and in-service training: Questions for discussion  (Read 56261 times)
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« on: May 07, 2009, 12:06:10 pm »

• How are HIV and AIDS addressed in pre-service teacher training in your country or the country/ies in which you work? What opportunities are there for continuous professional development on HIV and AIDS for teachers and what is the content, process and duration of the training? Are both pre- and in-service training opportunities offered and what is the coverage?

• Are teachers trained and supported to encourage participatory, child-centred and age-appropriate learning which helps learners to personalise the information, and address the risk and protective factors related to HIV? Are teachers equipped with a broad repertoire of teaching methodologies and instructional skills

• In your experience, are teacher training strategies for HIV prevention different in low versus high prevalence settings? In what way(s) and why?

• Which interventions produce demonstrable improvements in teacher effectiveness to teach about HIV and AIDS? Consider and comment on different approaches.

• There is considerable evidence that many teachers have difficulties addressing sex – the main mode of HIV transmission – when teaching about HIV. In your country or the country/ies in which you work, how does teacher training approach the building of teachers’ confidence to address these topics in the classroom setting? What other kinds of support may teachers need in order to deal effectively with this issue?
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Moses_OrweOnyango
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« Reply #1 on: May 18, 2009, 07:00:22 pm »

In my country, Kenya, I think tutors at primary teacher training colleges are still to come to terms with HIV/AIDS issues. There is still silence and little teaching about HIV prevention education even though it is officially integrated in the curriculum. Most of the tutors have not been trained to teach about HIV/AIDS yet the ministry of education in partnership with CfBT do conduct training for tutors. These national training have not been systematic and those trained are either administrators who do not teach in classes and mostly wait for invitation from the ministry to conduct in-service workshops for primary school teachers. I feel most training colleges in Kenya are still to fully implement the revised PTTC syllabus which has integrated HIV/AIDS as cross cutting issue.
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Shelina Walli
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« Reply #2 on: May 19, 2009, 10:22:49 am »

 

In my experience of conducting action research to integrate HIV/AIDS education in the preschool curriculum, it was evident that participatory action research was a means of practical teacher training.

One of the outcomes of the above research was; teachers took initiative to integrate scientific knowledge and life skill education with the aim to provide awareness on HIV/AIDS, effects of and prevention of the same.
I would therefore strongly recommend action research as a means of in-service teacher training for practicing teachers.
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« Reply #3 on: May 19, 2009, 10:47:22 am »

A contribution sent via e-mail from Cameroon.

To increase the likehood of success,interventions need to be culturally appropriate and locally relevant,reflecting the social context within which they are embedded .They should be designed with a clear idea of the targuet population and the types of behaviours to changed.In turn,recognized impediments in the social environment to behaviour change probably need to be specifically adressed.Behaviour-change interventions should include promotion of lower-risk behaviour ,assistance in development of risk-reduction skills,and promotion of changes in societal norms.It must be noted that in Africa ,there is an urgent need to design ways of targeting women and adolescents for prevention messages.
          Basic principles of successful of Teachers programs include the following:
           
          Learning about and adapting to localconditions,
          ensuring community participation,
          carefully targeting the audience,
          identifying effective strategies and messages,
          buildind local capacity,
          evaluation results,and
          using the results from evaluation.
         
          Numerous interventions are being implemented throughout Africa ,but most are still information-based health education campaigns.Many of the messages communicated are generic or vague and do not address specific risk behaviors .Innovative approaches are typically small scale and lack rigorous evaluation .furthermore,it is not easy to demonstrate the success of a particular intervention because it is difficult to define and measure such outcome variables as "better health status" and to determine whether the intervention in question was the reason for a desired change.Consequently ,the need for solid evaluation research is still urgent .
 
 
Jean Gaston Emene Mengue
26 years old
AASM's Secretary
Cameroon
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Mark_Omolade
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« Reply #4 on: May 19, 2009, 11:00:53 am »

In Nigeria,NIEPA my office precisely developed modules on the training and in-service training for teachers with the epidemic.In most of the training modules developed for UNICEF and MDGs in NIEPA,it is included in the curriculum.So achievements is on the high side here.As at present more modules on HIV/AIDS are on the way.Mark
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G_Dart
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« Reply #5 on: May 19, 2009, 12:30:36 pm »



In my experience of conducting action research to integrate HIV/AIDS education in the preschool curriculum, it was evident that participatory action research was a means of practical teacher training.

I would therefore strongly recommend action research as a means of in-service teacher training for practicing teachers.

This sounds a very interesting approach and it would be good to hear more about it from Shelina.

In Botswana a lot of time, energy and resources have been directed at tackling HIV / AIDS but my experience as a teacher educator there was that there was a gap between all this information and workshopping and the final detailed work and effort needed to integrate that into the everyday teacher education material and experience of students (and teachers in schools).
A huge amount of funding was put into a TV programme called 'Talkback' which was designed to be interactive and allow a forum for teachers and pupils to speak openly but research that I conducted with my students seemed to indicate that its effects might have been quite limited. Again, what was missing was the detailed work needed at a school level to ensure that staff and students were allowed access to the programme and were given basic training on how to use the material effectively on a day to day and classroom  level. For instance in the college where I worked only one per cent of students said that they watched the programme regularly whilst at college. Reported rates of use at schools were higher but very variable.
Piloting of such large scale projects is surely necessary as is a robust evaluation system which should be built into the original project (as far as I know the smallscale research I did with my students was the only evaluative work made public though I might be out of date with that by now).
But the points that Jean Mengue makes in his posting;

 Learning about and adapting to localconditions,
          ensuring community participation,
          carefully targeting the audience,
          identifying effective strategies and messages,
          buildind local capacity,
          evaluation results and
          using the results from evaluation.

are extremely important.
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Gareth Dart
YF_Liu
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« Reply #6 on: May 19, 2009, 12:33:26 pm »

I’d like to take this opportunity to share some information from low-prevalence settings.

In China, with support from UNICEF and UNESCO, the Beijing Normal University led a pilot project to integrate HIV and AIDS education in pre-service teacher training institutes. Various models were developed and tested during 2004-2006 in different teacher training colleges selected across the country, namely:

•   As an 18-hour elective subject for graduate students enrolled in “4+2 Programme” (4 years undergraduate and 2 years graduate), School of Education, Beijing Normal University

•   As an 18-hour elective subject for undergraduate students enrolled in Biology Teacher Training programme, Department of Biology, Hainan Normal University

•   As a compulsory subject for students in Physical Education, 24 teaching hours,  Zhejiang Lishui Teachers’ Training College

•   An on-line course for teachers registered in continued education programmes, 10 credits, by Hangzhou Normal University [In-service training]

•   An 8-hour curriculum infused into other subjects, Capital Sports College

•   Integrated with Carrier Subjects, such as: 10-hours in Medical Supervision (Jilin University); 6 hours in Female Health (Beijing Normal University); 8 hours in Genetics (School of Education, Beijing Normal University); 10 hours in Health Education (School of Sports, Inner Mongolian Normal University)

•   HIV and AIDS as a stand-alone subject, 26 hours, for students of correspondence, Inner Mongolian Normal University

The Chinese Ministry of Education organized two national workshops in 2006 to introduce these models to all teachers’ training institutions.

However, such project-driven activities seems remaining small-scaled and ad hoc, neither scaled up nor institutionalized.
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J_Sass
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« Reply #7 on: May 19, 2009, 02:14:44 pm »

I note that no one has yet mention the role of trade unions in teacher education programmes.

In many countries teachers' unions are implementing HIV prevention programmes, developing training materials, organizing training programmes, and allocating membership fees to HIV prevention activities for their members.

How are teachers' unions involved in teacher education programmes on HIV & AIDS in your country? Do you think that this should be a core activity of the union? What about other aspects related to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support.

Looking forward to your perspectives, Justine 
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Might Abreh
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« Reply #8 on: May 19, 2009, 02:55:45 pm »

The contributions to the pre-service and the in-service components in teacher training is so interesting yesterday I spent a lot of time discussing teachers role in the curbing the problem HIV. The reflections on yesterdays topics took me through the discussion of the university of Cape Coast role making impact at both Institutional level and beyond (under Child protection school environments).

The initial teacher training colleges (now known as the colleges of education) have a courses in HIV AIDS education that is supposed to taken by students as part of the requirements for graduation. The students are tested to competencies by means of examination - assessment conducted by the Institute of Education. Teacher educators role in realizing the objects of these courses are crucial. Hence, concurrently workshops sponsored by the Institute of Education and Teacher Education Division of the Ghana Education Service are conducted to better resource the teacher educators to improve their level of proficiency and current research findings on the subject matter.

Special teacher educators were selected all over the country and trained in HIV AIDS educations (all such teachers). The Holy Child College of Education, in Takoradi as result has HIV AIDS Education Lab. students have first hand understanding on the use of contraceptives and other lessons.
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« Reply #9 on: May 19, 2009, 03:11:38 pm »

Dear team,

Many thanks indeed for initiating this forum. However I am experiencing some network problems and hence I would like to share my contribution through this PPT. I hope will be of interest to the rest.

The MEMA KWA VIJANA (MKV) means good things for young people was a four year intervention that was implemented jointly by AMREF, NIMR (Tanzania), Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, and London school of Tropical Medicine with the focus of promoting know to the prevention of HIV and AIDS in schools. The programme involved multsectoral departments at district level to ensure total commitment of government and those lessons leant are widely shared within the region and country at large.
Departments included Education, Health, Planning and Community developments. In this respect, teachers and health service provides were the primary beneficences of the programme. In the document, you will notice to what extent the programme has been useful in providing some policy influence among teachers and the government at different levels to ensure that teachers are part and parcel in the fight against HIV and AIDS so that youth (primary school children0 are aware on the means of controlling the killer disease.

As a result of this, many teachers in various schools of Mwanza region has now formed some community clubs to support themselves in continuing with education and prevention.

I hope this helps to contribute to the forum.

Best wishes,

Koronel
Programme manager
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D_Sanglan
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« Reply #10 on: May 20, 2009, 11:18:27 am »

Dear all,
On the question of teacher union involvement, 80 unions in 49 countries are participating in the EI EFAIDS Programme through which they work on education for HIV and AIDS Prevention. Unions implementing the EFAIDS Programme are supported in their activities by Education International, in partnership with the World Health Organisation and Education Development Center.  Through participating in training under the EFAIDS Programme, teachers acquire the skills to promote HIV prevention among their colleagues and students. Spurred by their work some unions are reaching out to local communities and taking the lead on HIV and AIDS.  In the EFAIDS Programme unions go beyond training on HIV, and work also to research, advocate and campaign for improvements on a whole range of AIDS-related themes. Working with their context, teacher unions are learning the best ways to respond to and prevent AIDS- related discrimination. Teacher unions are proving vital to supporting Teachers Living with HIV, partnering up with networks of such teachers or establishing dedicated networks within the union as appropriate. Teacher unions are lobbying their governments to include HIV and AIDS education in pre-service teacher training and school curricula; and are eager to be involved in processes to achieve that. Many unions are seeking ways to fully integrate their EFAIDS activities into their general union work. Through such interlinked strategies teacher unions can play an important role in minimising the adverse affects of HIV and AIDS on teachers and consequently minimise the detrimental impact of HIV and AIDS on the wider education sector. 
Below see some snapshots of the work undertaken by the unions in the last year:

In Burkina Faso, four teacher unions work together to build the capacity of their members to address the HIV and AIDS in schools. Recently unions focused on informing their members on the importance of VCT. They also conducted a study on the impact of HIV on teachers which led to the conclusion that HIV prevalence among teachers was higher than the national average. A focus on training enabled the unions to train some 2,200 teachers in 750 schools during 2008. Therefore to date the Burkinabe unions have achieved an impressive outreach, training 600 trainers and 7,000 teachers in almost 3,000 schools.

In Côte d’Ivoire, the IE-SCI (Education International – Côte d’Ivoire Section) groups four different teacher unions. Together, in 2008, they have achieved success in strengthening capacities of Executive Board members of the four unions, trainers and teachers (primary and secondary levels), including those studying in teacher training colleges all districts across Côte d’Ivoire. Almost 600 teachers were trained on HIV/AIDS education, EFA and violence in school.
Using the cascade model, teachers have attended training workshops seeking to affect behavioural change (18,000 teachers have been trained in government controlled territory since the beginning of the programme in 2006).

Dominican union, the Dominican Association of Teachers (ADP), works with other teacher unions FAPROUASD and ANPROTED on the programme. Training is at the core of their activities and since the beginning of the EFAIDS programme, more than 21,000 students have now received HIV prevention education in the classroom from trained teachers. Over the last year, 480 new teachers were trained on delivering HIV prevention education.

The Ghanaian National Association of Teachers (GNAT) and the Teachers & Educational Workers’ Union (TEWU) work together on the EFAIDS programme. A recent research survey entitled, “Awareness and Use of HIV/AIDS Prevention Methods among Teachers and Educational Workers in Ghana”, was carried out resulting in recommendations to open more counselling centres, promote VCT among members, involve members in skill-building programmes, and carry out more programmes targeting young people. The research survey was also instrumental in the development of policy. The Workplace Policy on HIV and AIDS was reviewed and extended to detail how the unions can prevent or mitigate the impact of HIV and AIDS on members.
The Namibia National Teachers' Union (NANTU) played an active role in 2008 in the consultation and drafting process of the ‘HIV and AIDS Workplace Wellness Policy for the Education Sector’. In addition NANTU worked with the Legal Assistance Centre to produce a dedicated Workplace Union Policy which was launched in June last year. Teachers were subsequently trained in the practical use of the Workplace Policy. Training during 2008 also focused on gender and GIPA, and fostering effective presentation skills.
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J_Pessi
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« Reply #11 on: May 20, 2009, 12:26:08 pm »

Trade unions, from the education sector or any other, have a crucial role to play in mobilizing their membership, raising awareness to the issue and developing policies to support workers, especially those living with HIV.

The fact that many governments have not adequately responded to the epidemic and have overlooked its impact, has led unions to take action and to invest scarce resources, both human and financial, to addressing this issue. The problem is that in some countries, there are reports that the government has used as an excuse for not training teachers the fact that the union has a programme.  If the union is taking care of that, why should we?, says the Minister of Education. Also, while the union is busy training teachers on HIV, the government is implementing another education reform.

The core activity of the union should be to defend the interest of its members and enhance education in a sustainable way. Union-led  HIV and AIDS education training programmes are of extreme importance, but  the long term solution is for the governments to assume their responsibility and to finance programmes and provide teachers with support to do our job well, as well as a decent salary in accordance to the expectations society has from our work.
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« Reply #12 on: May 20, 2009, 02:54:50 pm »

A contribution sent via email from Francelino Da Silva Correia, President of TLETA (The Timor Leste Exact Teacher Association):

1.   Before this forum in my country for pre- service some time Organized by Department of Health jointly with International Agency in my country, but General training for young, for people women, man, but not for teacher
-   And now after this forum I hope you (UNAIDS-HIV) to support us (my Association) to organized teacher training for HIV and AIDS in my country. If possible.
-   Pre- service: workshop, show photo, keys indicator-indicator about epidemics of HIV and AIDS etc this is promotion from the Department of Health and International Agencies.
-   The opportunities in my country are we must create the center of prevention of HIV and AIDS, Center of training for trainers for teacher specifics for HIV and AIDS.
-   The content will be in high is to stopping, to chain, to prevent, to safe of HIV and AIDS, the environmental schools to safety the students and teacher in community relation towards HIV and AIDS.
-   Training duration 3 years late and 10 years maximum,  in this position have cover all students and teacher in my country, so my country is very small  have only 900.000 rate population.
-   If the both pre and in service training offered, the item for coverage HIV and AIDS is  Brochure, TVTL, Radio  FM  Traveling clinic and also person of teacher for each family, because all villages in my country have teacher there and they do not know about transmission of HIV and AIDS.
2.   Yes if the teacher trained, they will have had the high encourage participatory.
-   Child center and age appropriate ….. yes and interesting in my country recently now not yet, but if possible and the UNAIDS-HIV to support, my be I and our friend have high Confidence and our friends as a teacher in my country will provide and implement that issue.
3.   In my experiences yes and different, why I say different, low  and high prevalence.
-   we use the word low its meaning still have a little no empty like 1, 2, or 3 or item reduce only. And we use the word of high prevalence it meaning Zero or some , actually, normal, depend the situation and cultural every country origin to implement.
4.   In my country The Department of health already do that, but not yet to the teacher exact (Natural science or social science) including in intervention produce demonstrable………… to HIV and AIDS,  but to teach only based on the theory of Biology about topics at Virus and sub topics HIV and AIDS. Teach By teachers.
-   we have different approach  there are : take moral religious, frighten the students or people only about HIV and AIDS, show brochure, photo etc.
5.   Yes in my country every teacher have difficulties to addressing Sex- about the main mode transmission, when teaching about HIV and AIDS no equipment, laboratories etc.
-   The teacher teaching according their capacity building of the theory only about HIV and AIDS topics, some times they use the pictures of HIV and AIDS show to the student in classroom.
-   I say that the kinds will be support to the teacher (Natural Science and Social Science) to teach the students. There are :
-   Microscopic, provide the slide of teaching, material, literature of teaching.
-   Equipments additional for Biology or HIV and AIDS Material teaching.
-   Library of HIV and AIDS, if the keys above have done supported, I think is effectively the teachers will be teaching use Methodologies and Instructional for Skills.     
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Richard Mabala
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« Reply #13 on: May 20, 2009, 03:24:43 pm »

one issue that I hardly see mentioned at all here is 'life skills'.  My experience as a teacher and facilitator is that, especially by the time they get to teachers' colleges, young people are bored stiff with HIV education because it usually goes on telling them what they already know.  Except maybe for biology teachers, they are not in any way prepared to give education, only messages.  Nor are they trained to develop the life skills required in their pupils/students to put any worthwhile knowledge into practice. 

I think all teacher trainees should first be trained in life skills for their own benefit and related to their own lives.  This will also enable them to teach life skills at schools, although in many places the participatory methodologies required are a problem to many.  That is why I liked what I saw in Zimbabwe where, apart from all trainees being taught life skills, they had another category of trainee peer educators who were brilliant!  If HIV education ... and life skills, not just connected to HIV, is to work, we should develop more on a voluntary basis, asking for, training and giving incentives to teachers for these.  I am sure we will get enough teachers for this and we will then get away from the problem of requiring teachers to teach the subject when their religion, or their temperament is against such teaching, and such methodologies.  That is why it is reported in so many countries that teachers just leave the book on the table rather than teach the subject.
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« Reply #14 on: May 20, 2009, 03:52:43 pm »

Contribution received via email from Oulaye Lydet from Côte d'Ivoire:

To suggest that the methods of selection of teachers in Civic and Moral Education has an incidence on their motivation to assure their information tasks is not insignificant. There is a relationship between the way in which teachers are chosen and their motivation to teacher the subject. However, before detailing this relationship, it is useful to evoke the relationship between selection and training.

Often teaching Civic and Moral Education is not a choice. The teachers are generally chosen amongst those who have not reached the quota of hours required for the subject in which they received their initial training. Some teachers are literally obliged to give classes in Civic and Moral Education to fulfill their hours, and to “justify” as it were the relationship between remuneration and hourly rate. These problems are directly linked to the absence of training and people to teach Civic and Moral Education. As there are no teachers specially trained in Civic and Moral Education, the Ministry allows head teachers to draw from their teaching staff those who may be available. If this solution for teaching Civic and Moral Education is an answer to the lack of staff, it also has the disadvantage of reducing the motivation of teachers for Civic and Moral Education. From one year to another, teachers do not necessarily continue with teaching Civic and Moral Education if they have enough teaching hours for their own subject. Whereas some more “scrupulous” teachers of Civic and Moral Education buy documents/manuals to assist them, others consider that this is an additional expense [this is, it seems to me, similar to the problems of remuneration that the moderator evokes in Ghana and Nigeria]. Some talk of an additional workload, as they must not only inform themselves, but also prepare lessons in Civic and Moral Education as well as their own subject.

It would seem that to minimize these limits to teaching Civic and Moral Education, it is important to create an option for teacher Civic and Moral Education within initial teacher training. This would mean that there would be teachers specifically trained to undertake these classes and only these classes. It also seems of great importance to include within initial teacher training in Civic and Moral Education a module on “teacher ethics”. Lack of teacher training in Civic and Moral Education also raises the question of teacher ethics and the teachers’ relations with pupils. These are often abused by teachers. The phenomenon of “sexually transmitted grades” amongst others is common practice within teacher/pupil relations and the power relations between teachers and pupils often run in favour of the former to the detriment of the latter. It is possible as some parents fear that evoking questions of sexuality within the classroom creates sexual contacts between teachers and pupils. In this case, it may be appropriate to delegate the transmission of knowledge related to sexuality to more “neutral” persons.

Moreover, the extension of a module on teacher ethics to all subjects within teacher training would be judicious as sexual abuse of pupils generally happens within the school environment. Not only amongst teachers of Civic and Moral Education. Day to day relations between male teachers and female pupils are susceptible to creating affinities which may become amorous.

I would also like to evoke the issue of behaviour change and sexuality. It seems to me that behaviour change in the area of sexuality can not only be based on promoting information on STDs and HIV, as ignorance is not the only aspect to take into account when it comes to sexual behavior. It is clear, as certain authors within the field of social sciences suggest, that economic, cultural, relational, should also be taken into account.

For my part, I have personally witnessed that events within the life of pupils can not only distress them but can also lead to a change in sexual behavior. It is noticeable that events produce new “organizations” within an individual’s life and activate one or other of the different economical, cultural, relational factors, or other factors. This factor then becomes the element from which the behavior of an individual is guided, including those related to sexuality. The death of a parent may bring out the importance of religious beliefs and lead to the end of a relationship to conform to these beliefs. An encounter may highlight the importance of a single relationship and bring about the change from multiple partners to a single sexual partner. The rape of a young girl can be so traumatic that it ends any perspective of relationships.

So, from my perspective, it is fundamental to measure an individual’s sexual behavior change in relation to the events in his/her life and to link the changes in sexual behavior according to each event in that person’s life.
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